Learn how to use apply() function family in R

In this article, we will discuss the apply() function family in the R, its types, and a few of its types applied to different data structures. The apply() family is an in-built package in R, so we don’t have to install it separately. The main advantage of apply() function is that we can use these functions as an alternative to loop operations.

In this post, we’ll learn how we can use the R apply() function, and its different types such as lapply(), sapply(), tapply(), mapply(), and the replicate() function applied to different data structures. So let's get started!

Photo by Mohammad Rahmani on Unsplash

The apply() Family —

The apply()


Photo by Daria Nepriakhina on Unsplash

Books are like treasures. Libraries, bookstores, cafes, and college campuses are all filled with books — the most important thing in our lives. Those who like to read books appreciate every place which holds this treasure. Those who are not a fan of reading, don’t understand a bibliophile’s obsession with books.

Books are very important for the mind, heart, and soul. Reading can help you reduce stress, and teaches you to become more creative and open-minded. Reading is important because it develops our thought process, provides us immense knowledge while keeping our mind active and fresh. Books hold all kinds…


Learn how to create a data frame in R and export it to a CSV format!

Photo by Fotis Fotopoulos on Unsplash

R is the first choice for many statisticians and data scientists when it comes to statistical computing and data mining. R is a programming language specially made for statistical computing and visualization. It was developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in 1995 at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, where the name “R” was derived from the first letters of their names. R is free and open-source software that runs across all major platforms.

R is an object-oriented programming language, it has various operators and functions that allow users to collect, explore, analyze, and visualize data. R mainly…


Learn how to create a dataframe and export it to a CSV format!

Photo by Dmitry Ratushny on Unsplash

Python is the first choice for many Data Scientists when it comes to data science and machine learning. It is a high-level general-purpose programming language with a wide range of functionality including Automation, Data Analytics, Databases, Machine Learning, Scientific Computing, Web Scraping, Image Processing, and so on. It is an open-source and free-to-use language that runs easily across all major operating systems.


Data Engineering

Data Engineering: A brief introduction!

Photo by CHUTTERSNAP on Unsplash

From helping Facebook tag you in photos to helping Netflix and Spotify recommend you your favorite movies and songs, the field of Data Science has evolved rapidly and created a lot of hype. Data Science and the profession of Data scientist have become incredibly sought after and the most demanding job. According to Harvard Business Review, it has been named the hottest job of the 21st century. A skilled data scientist can add immense value to businesses by harnessing the extreme power of data. But what exactly is data engineering? Who is a data engineer and what role he or…


Programming

Data is everywhere. The amount of data we’re generating every day is enormous. According to a report by Forbes, we’re generating 2.5 quintillion bytes of data each day. The main reason behind this is that more than 3.7 billion humans are using the internet every day. Therefore, Data Science & Machine Learning are considered two of the most advanced and in-demand technologies of this century.

This ever-rising demand for data scientists and machine learning engineers has forced everyone to learn the programming languages required for these technologies. Be it about recommending movies on Netflix, spam filtering, critical business decisions, or…


R, Web Scraping

learn how to scrape the data off the internet using R and export it into CSV format!

Disclaimer: This article is only for educational purposes. We do not encourage anyone to scrape websites, especially those web properties that may have terms and conditions against such actions.

Information is everywhere. The flow of information on the internet is continuous. With all the advancements in technology, it is even easier to collect, record, store, and access the data. Therefore, the internet is filled with a large number of data sets that you can use for your personal projects. Sometimes, you may get lucky enough and will have access to a full, neat, and clean dataset. Other times, you won't…


An open-source machine learning library, TensorFlow is used to train, test develop, and deploy neural networks. In this tutorial, you’ll install TensorFlow in a Python virtual environment with virtualenv. This approach isolates the TensorFlow 2.0 installation and gets things up and running quickly. Once you complete the installation, you’ll validate your installation by importing Tensorflow to ensure you have no errors. Before diving deep into the process, first, let us understand what Tensor and TensorFlow are.

What is Tensor?

Mathematically speaking, a Tensor is an object which is represented as a multi-dimensional array. It is a container that can contain data in N…


Photo by j zamora on Unsplash

It’s not just you. Or me. Everyone wants to learn data science and machine learning. Data Science and Machine learning are two of the most in-demand technologies in today’s world. Over the last few years, data science has become one of the highest-paid fields for professionals in the IT industry. As we see, more and more businesses around the world are adopting these latest technologies, and also there is a growing demand for skilled data scientists and machine learning engineers.

Therefore, if you plan to make a successful career in this field, or already a data scientist who wants to…


Simple and useful guide!

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has taken over the world by storm in recent years. Artificial Intelligence is one of the most popular terms of Computer Science. Artificial Intelligence, also known as Machine Intelligence, is a simulation of human intelligence in machines that are designed to think like humans and mimic their actions. AI makes sure that the tasks performed by the machines are very similar to that of humans, such as driving a car or asking for directions. …

Kunal Ajay Kulkarni

Instrumentation Engineer | Data Science and Machine Learning enthusiast | Avid Reader

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store